The main basis of the fundamental level that builds up the universe is only humans, stars, dust, plasma, and many more, as per mankind. These are the main entities that are directly noticed and are just not divisible. Previously, it was assumed that the atoms must be the unabbreviated entities, and soon was discovered that atoms are also divided into atm nuclei and electrons and they are composed of gluons and quarks.
Mankind has simply mastered Physics and the laws related to it. Additionally, humans have also started to influence these subatomic particles. We have achieved the ability to accelerate and strike them, this enables the production of a wide massacre of particles and antiparticles, as per the details provided by the Standard Model of particle physics.
Further, if all these forms of matter are added up then will simply feel the shortage of everything that describes our universe, it may be neutrinos, photons, or anything which is atom-free. However, the two most important components are ‘dark matter and dark energy.’ Notably, this is something very obvious to state that there must be the particles behind the existence of this dark matter but this theory does not imply dark energy.
All the particles have a really common thing, which is that they all have a set of ‘quantum numbers,’ or the properties that get inherited to them that define their masses spin, and other charges. Also, the particles which are the similar type like, Z-bosons, down quarks, electrons and etc. show twin properties with respect to one another. However, it is extremely easy to replace any one of them with any other particle and the entire characteristics would remain the same.
The thing which mainly creates the difference amongst them is mainly random like lifetime decay process of or the other facts like their momentum, energy levels and also their angular momentum. Although, there is yet another way to break these particles down as massive or into massless forms.
The massive particles turn to be slower as the universe expands and cools during the hot blow-up and with time they all cluster together due to gravitational forces. On the other hand, the massless particles, just move via the curved space provided and they travel at a constant speed. The particles interact with one another while being on their path. Thus, it can be said massive matter and massless radiation particles moved around in different ways with the expansion of the universe.
Significantly, there is a huge requirement of verifying the energy, and thus the experts have included even the gravitational forces to completing this. This is mainly known as the gravitation interaction, i.e., the object gets attracted towards it due to gravity.
With the measurement of the galaxy’s clusters formations well as their large-scale distribution, internal properties, we can mainly identify the total ‘stuff’ and its behavior, though it is made of massive particles. Notably, none of the physicals models ever reacts to the dark energy, but most of the time they can lead to the presence of a fifth force.